Pressor factors and responsiveness in hypertension accompanying diabetes mellitus.
Hypertension accompanying diabetes mellitus may involve abnormalities in at least two major blood pressure-regulating systems: the body sodium-fluid volume state and cardiovascular reactivity. In metabolically stable nonazotemic diabetes, exchangeable sodium is increased by 10% on average, regardless of age, insulin dependence or nondependence, or the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy or clinical nephropathy (proteinuria greater than or equal to 0.3 g/24 hr). Possible contributing mechanisms include renal sodium retention and an extravascular shift of fluid and sodium; intracellular accumulation is not excluded. Circulatory volume is normal or low and the total exchangeable sodium/blood volume ratio increased. In hypertensive diabetes, the latter abnormality is particularly pronounced; systolic pressure tended to correlate with exchangeable sodium (r = 0.47, p less than 0.001) and diastolic pressure with the plasma sodium/potassium ratio (r = 0.25, p less than 0.05). Plasma aldosterone, renin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels are generally normal or sometimes low in metabolically stable nonazotemic diabetic patients with normal or high blood pressure; the plasma clearance of norepinephrine also appears to be unaltered. The cardiovascular pressor responsiveness to norepinephrine is often exaggerated relative to concomitant plasma concentrations, regardless of age, type of antidiabetic treatment, or presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, or high blood pressure. Pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II also may sometimes be increased relative to plasma renin levels. Sodium retention and diabetic vasculopathy of resistance vessels could be important complementary mechanisms of hyperreactivity. In diabetes with mild hypertension, diuretic treatment restored exchangeable sodium, norepinephrine pressor responsiveness, and blood pressure toward normal. Thus sodium retention and cardiovascular hyperreactivity tend to occur even at the normotensive, nonazotemic stage of diabetes and may concomitantly predispose for the frequent development of hypertension in the diabetic population.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association