Diabetic control and the renin-angiotensin system, catecholamines, and blood pressure.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is usually associated with marked secondary hyperaldosteronism. Plasma levels of renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone are markedly raised before treatment in most patients, with values falling rapidly toward normal as metabolic control is restored. In a few patients, mostly those with long-term complications of diabetes, plasma levels of renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone before treatment remain within the normal range. In moderately hyperglycemic patients who have glycosuria but not ketonuria, plasma levels of all three substances are significantly higher than when control is improved. Occasionally, moderately hyperglycemic patients have mild secondary hyperaldosteronism. Improved metabolic control in such patients causes a rise in plasma volume and a rise in total exchangeable sodium, the latter to levels significantly above normal. Plasma catecholamine levels are markedly elevated in diabetic ketoacidosis, probably as a consequence of the ketoacidotic state. In nonketotic patients with moderate hyperglycemia, basal plasma norepinephrine levels are normal; catecholamine responses to exercise may be exaggerated, however. Epidemiological and animal studies suggest a relationship between blood pressure and blood glucose levels. There are few clinical studies of the effects of altering metabolic control of diabetes on blood pressure, and this is an important area for further study.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association