Trajectories of Childhood Blood Pressure and Adult Left Ventricular HypertrophyNovelty and Significance
The Bogalusa Heart Study
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This longitudinal study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood and examine the impact of level-independent childhood BP trajectories on adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling patterns. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1154 adults (787 whites and 367 blacks) who had repeated measurements of BP 4 to 15 times from childhood (4–19 years) to adulthood (20–51 years) and assessment of echocardiographic LV dimensions in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters of BP showed significant race and sex differences from age 15 years onwards. Adults with LVH had higher long-term BP levels than adults with normal LVM in race–sex groups. Linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP differed consistently and significantly between LVH and normal groups. Associations of level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP with adult LVH were significantly inverse (odds ratio=0.75–0.82; P=0.001–0.015) in preadolescent children of 4 to 9 years but significantly positive (odds ratio=1.29–1.46; P=0.001–0.008) in adolescents of 13 to 19 years, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race–sex groups. Of note, the association of childhood BP linear slopes with concentric LVH was significantly stronger than that with eccentric LVH during the adolescence period of 12 to 19 years. These observations indicate that the impact of BP trajectories on adult LVH and geometric patterns originates in childhood. Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of LVH in later life, which has implications for early prevention.
- Received February 1, 2018.
- Revision received February 12, 2018.
- Accepted April 19, 2018.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.