Cell-Derived Exosomes for Cardiovascular Therapies
Y (Not) RNAs?
See related article, pp 370–380
Hypertension is recognized as the leading pathophysiologic insult for atherosclerosis development and progression, for the development of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases, and for organ damage. It represents overall the major risk factor for heart failure, stroke, and kidney diseases. Current guidelines for hypertension management are mainly based on combination therapies.1 However, a significant percentage of patients with hypertension still fails to achieve optimal blood pressure targets, and the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension continues to rise. Under this perspective and because of its multifaceted pathogenesis, therapeutic modulation of hypertension could be more complex than expected and ascribable to more than one single aspect. Increasing evidence supports a complex interplay of immunity (both innate and adaptive) and inflammation in the development of hypertension. Ang (angiotensin) II—one of the key factors modulating blood pressure—has been described as a major trigger of inflammation in resistance vessels and kidney. Recently the interplay between immunity, inflammation, and Ang II has become evident as a main pathogenetic mechanism involved in the onset of hypertension.2
Among novel strategies for cardiovascular disease treatment, cardiac …