Hemodynamic characteristics of the intestinal microcirculation in renal hypertension.
This study investigated the microvascular changes that affect vascular resistance in the rat small intestine during two-kidney, one clip renal hypertension 4 weeks after renal artery stenosis. To study the intestinal microcirculation, a loop of the small intestine was exteriorized with intact circulation and innervation and a section of the bowel wall was prepared for observation with an intravital video microscopy system. Microvascular diameter, pressure, and flow velocity were measured for first, second, and third branch order arterioles and venules, using an image shearing monitor, servo-null micropipette system, and an optical Doppler velocimeter, respectively. The diameters of the first order arterioles and venules were significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced in hypertensive rats; however, diameters were unaltered in smaller second and third order arterioles and venules as compared with normotensive vessels. In hypertensive rats, mean arterial pressure was significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated (47%) and pressures also were elevated significantly (p less than 0.05) throughout the microcirculation, although by a proportionally smaller amount. Total network flow (i.e., first order arteriole flow) was significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced (40%) in hypertensive rats, but volume flows in individual second and third order arterioles were similar to flows measured in normotensive rats. Calculated total network resistance was increased (124%) in hypertensive rats. Thus, the intestinal microcirculation in rats with two-kidney, one clip renal hypertension is disturbed by elevated pressure and decreased total flow. The presence of normal flows in individual second and third order arterioles without any demonstrable difference in their diameters suggests that the predominant cause of elevated resistance across this segment of the intestinal microcirculation is a reduction in the number of perfused small arterioles.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association