Increased plasma vasopressin in low renin essential hypertension.
Baseline plasma vasopressin concentrations were measured in 48 men (all 50 years old) with decreased plasma renin concentration and untreated, sustained essential hypertension and in 29 healthy normotensive men. Mean hypertensive plasma vasopressin concentration was more than twice as high as the corresponding normotensive level (15.7 +/- 2.2 [SE] vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 pg/ml; p less than 0.001). Plasma renin concentration in the hypertensive group was reduced compared with that in the normotensive group (0.28 +/- 0.04 vs 0.46 +/- 0.06 Goldblatt units X 10(-4)/ml). These differences appeared despite virtually identical serum osmolality, creatinine clearance, and urinary sodium excretion in the two groups. In the first 38 hypertensive subjects, arterial plasma epinephrine concentrations were significantly increased over those of the first 28 control subjects (99 +/- 12 vs 68 +/- 6 pg/ml; p less than 0.025). In contrast to those with low renin essential hypertension, 35 men with normal renin essential hypertension (all 40 years old) had normal plasma vasopressin levels that were not significantly different from those in a comparable normotensive control group (3.7 +/- 0.8 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 pg/ml). Arterial epinephrine concentrations were not significantly different between normal renin subjects and the control group. After 6 weeks of treatment with the nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker oxprenolol in 11 subjects with low renin hypertension, blood pressure was reduced and the plasma vasopressin concentration fell from 27.6 +/- 6.4 to 13.5 +/- 4.2 pg/ml (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association