Differential modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by brain and plasma vasopressin.
Plasma vasopressin sensitizes the baroreceptor reflex, whereas vasopressin given into the cerebral ventricle overrides the baroreceptor reflex by means of sympathetic stimulation. To test the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin stimulates two different receptor subtypes (V1 and V2) in the central nervous system, we measured the baroreceptor reflex (change in pulse interval vs change in blood pressure) after administering methoxamine (10-300 micrograms/kg i.v.) in conscious rats. Animals were pretreated either with a V1 vasopressin receptor antagonist administered intravenously or intracerebroventricularly, or with a V2 receptor antagonist administered intravenously. The central V1 antagonist caused sensitization of the baroreceptor reflex, whereas the intravenous V2 antagonist attenuated it. The intravenous V1 vasopressin antagonist had no effect on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. When the experiments were repeated in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus, neither antagonist influenced the baroreceptor reflex. Volume expansion lowered circulating vasopressin levels and also attenuated the baroreceptor reflex--effects similar to those observed with the intravenous V2 antagonist. We conclude that vasopressin sensitizes the baroreceptor reflex through V2 receptors accessible from the blood and inhibits the reflex through V1 receptors in the brain that cannot be reached from the blood. These observations suggest a direct interaction between hormonal and neuronal vasopressin in cardiovascular control.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association