Water loading and restriction in essential hypertension.
Blood pressure, plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), and renal excretory responses to short-term water loading (oral load of 20 ml/kg body weight over 30-45 minutes) were compared in 10 normotensive and 13 mild to moderately essential hypertensive subjects. In addition, we examined the renal concentrating ability of an additional group of 10 normotensive subjects and 12 hypertensive subjects in response to a 24-hour water restriction and intranasal administration of 10 micrograms of [1-deamino,8-D-arginine]vasopression. The hypertensive subjects exhibited both an exaggerated diuresis and natriuresis to the water load. At 20- and 60-minutes after water loading, hypertensive subjects had excreted 34 and 55% of the load, respectively, compared with 15 and 35% in normotensive subjects. Mean blood pressure rose significantly in both groups and hypertensive subjects exhibited a greater rise of systolic blood pressure (16 mm Hg) than normotensive subjects (8 mm Hg) 20 minutes after water loading. The maximum diuresis and natriuresis corresponded to the period in which the rise of blood pressure was greatest. The hypertensive subjects diluted and concentrated their urine as well as normotensive subjects did, indicating normal renal responsiveness to AVP. Plasma Na, osmolality, and AVP decreased similarly in both groups after water loading and rose similarly in the two groups after water restriction. This finding suggests that osmotic responsiveness of AVP is not altered in hypertensive subjects. In conclusion, the data suggest that the exaggerated renal response to water loading could be explained by the greater rise of blood pressure in hypertensive subjects rather than by altered AVP responses.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association