- Basic Science
Research includes animal experiments, cell studies, biochemical, genetic and physiological investigations, and studies on the properties of drugs and materials. It also includes the development and improvement of analytical procedures, imaging procedures, gene sequencing, and the development of biometric procedures.
- Clinical Science
Clinical research involves interactions with patients, diagnostic clinical materials or data, or populations in any of the following areas: (1) disease mechanisms (etiopathogenesis); (2) bi-directional integrative (translational) research; (3) clinical knowledge, detection, diagnosis and natural history of disease; (4) therapeutic interventions including clinical trials of drugs, biologics, devices and instruments; (5) prevention (primary and secondary) and health promotion; (6) behavioral research; and (7) health services research, including outcomes, and cost-effectiveness.
- Population Science
Epidemiology is the science that investigates the patterns, causes, and effects of health versus disease in populations or patient cohorts. This involves, but is not limited to: (1) quantification and control of morbidity and mortality; (2) high-throughput “omics” and deep DNA sequencing; (3) longitudinal observations; (4) natural experiments (Mendelian randomisation); (5) validation of potential disease-causing mechanisms identified in experimental studies and generating hypotheses for mechanisms to be tested in experimental studies; (6) use of “big data”, registries and “eHealth platforms”; and (7) systems biology and pathway analysis for integrating clinical with molecular data.