Glucocorticoid-Induced Fetal Programming Alters the Functional Complement of Angiotensin Receptor Subtypes Within the Kidney
Abstract We examined the impact of fetal programming on the functional responses of renal angiotensin receptors. Fetal sheep were exposed in utero to betamethasone (BMX; 0.17 mg/kg) or control (CON) at 80 to 81 days gestation with full-term delivery. Renal nuclear and plasma membrane fractions were isolated from sheep age 1.0 to 1.5 years for receptor binding and fluorescence detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide (NO). Mean arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability were significantly higher in the BMX-exposed adult offspring versus CON sheep. The proportion of nuclear AT1 receptors sensitive to losartan was 2-fold higher (67±6% vs 27±9%; P<0.01) in BMX compared with CON. In contrast, the proportion of AT2 sites was only one third that of controls (BMX, 25±11% vs CON, 78±4%; P<0.01), with a similar reduction in sites sensitive to the Ang-(1-7) antagonist D-Ala7-Ang-(1-7) with BMX exposure. Functional studies revealed that Ang II stimulated ROS to a greater extent in BMX than in CON sheep (16±3% vs 6±4%; P<0.05); however, NO production to Ang II was attenuated in BMX (26±7% vs 82±14%; P<0.05). BMX exposure was also associated with a reduction in the Ang-(1-7) NO response (75±8% vs 131±26%; P<0.05). We conclude that altered expression of angiotensin receptor subtypes may be one mechanism whereby functional changes in NO- and ROS-dependent signaling pathways may favor the sustained increase in blood pressure evident in fetal programming.
- Received October 27, 2010.
- Revision received November 22, 2010.
- Accepted December 13, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.