The Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Prehypertension and Masked Hypertension in Men With Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension are common conditions that frequently coexist. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and sustained hypertension. However, the impact of CPAP on patients with obstructive sleep apnea and prehypertension and masked hypertension, conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk, is unknown. Thirty-six male patients (age, 43±7 years; body mass index, 28.8±3.0 kg/m2) with untreated severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea–hypopnea index, 56±22 events/hr on polysomnography) with diagnostic criteria for prehypertension and/or masked hypertension, based on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, respectively, were studied. The patients randomized to no treatment (control; n=18) or CPAP (n=18) for 3 months had similar frequency of prehypertension and masked hypertension at study entry. There were no significant changes in blood pressure in patients randomized to the control group. In contrast, patients randomized to CPAP presented significant reduction in office systolic (from 126±5 to 121±7 mm Hg; P=0.001) and a trend for diastolic blood pressure (from 75±7 to 73±8 mm Hg; P=0.08) as well as a significant decrease in daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05 for each comparison). There was a significant reduction in the frequency of prehypertension (from 94% to 55%; P=0.02) and masked hypertension (from 39% to 5%; P=0.04) only in the CPAP group. In conclusion, effective CPAP therapy promotes significant reduction in the frequency of prehypertension and masked hypertension by promoting significant blood pressure reductions in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea.
- Received October 31, 2010.
- Revision received November 24, 2010.
- Accepted December 23, 2010.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.