Equol-Stimulated Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Activate Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Redox Signaling in Endothelial Cells
Roles for F-Actin and GPR30
We reported previously that dietary isoflavones modulate arterial blood pressure in vivo and that the daidzein metabolite equol rapidly activates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) via Akt and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2–dependent signaling. In this study, we report the first evidence in human endothelial cells that acute stimulation of mitochondrial superoxide generation by equol (100 nmol/L) is required for eNOS activation. Scavengers of superoxide (superoxide dismutase and manganese [III] tetrakis[1-methyl-4-pyridyl]porphyrin) abrogated equol stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, and the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone inhibited Akt, extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2, and eNOS phosphorylation, as well as NO-mediated increases in intracellular cGMP. Equol also induced rapid alterations in F-actin fiber distribution, with depolymerization of F-actin with cytochalasin D abrogating equol-stimulated mitochondrial superoxide generation. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin or inhibition of GPR30/epidermal growth factor receptor kinase transactivation prevented equol-induced activation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 via c-Src, Akt, and eNOS. Moreover, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activation with AG-1478 abrogated equol-stimulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent kinase and eNOS activation. Our findings suggest that equol-stimulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species modulate endothelial redox signaling and NO release involving transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Identification of these novel actions of equol may provide valuable insights for therapeutic strategies to restore endothelial function in cardiovascular disease.
- Received August 31, 2010.
- Revision received September 25, 2010.
- Accepted January 13, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.