Frequency of Familial Hyperaldosteronism Type 1 in a Hypertensive Pediatric Population
Clinical and Biochemical Presentation
Familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder attributed to a chimeric CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene (CG). Its prevalence and manifestation in the pediatric population has not been established. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 in Chilean hypertensive children and to describe their clinical and biochemical characteristics. We studied 130 untreated hypertensive children (4 to 16 years old). Blood samples for measuring plasma potassium, serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, aldosterone/renin ratio, and DNA were collected. The detection of CG was performed using long-extension PCR. We found 4 (3.08%) of 130 children with CG who belonged to 4 unrelated families. The 4 patients with CG had very high aldosterone/renin ratio (49 to 242). In addition, we found 4 children and 5 adults who were affected among 21 first-degree relatives. Of the 8 affected children, 6 presented severe hypertension, 1 presented prehypertension, and 1 presented normotension. High serum aldosterone levels (>17.7 ng/dL) were detected in 6 of 8 subjects (range: 18.6 to 48.4 ng/dL) and suppressed plasma renin activity (≤0.5 ng/mL per hour) and high aldosterone/renin ratio (>10) in 8 of 8 children (range: 49 to 242). Hypokalemia was observed in only 1 of 8 children. We demonstrated that the prevalence of familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 in a pediatric hypertensive pediatric population was surprisingly high. We found a high variability in the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the affected patients, which suggests that familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 is a heterogeneous disease with a wide spectrum of presentations even within the same family group.
- arterial hypertension
- familial hyperaldosteronism
- glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism
- Received December 21, 2010.
- Revision received January 17, 2011.
- Accepted March 26, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.