Association of Blood Pressure and Hypertension With the Risk of Parkinson Disease
The National FINRISK Study
Cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and central obesity, have been associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but data on blood pressure and PD are lacking. We sought to examine the association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of PD among men and women. This study consisted of 7 surveys (1972–2002) on representative samples of the general population in Finland (National FINRISK Study). A total number of 59 540 participants (age 25 to 74 years; 51.8% women) who were free of PD and stroke at baseline were prospectively followed until December 31, 2006, to identify incident PD cases using the National Social Insurance Register database. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratio of PD associated with blood pressure. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years (SD: 10.2 years), 423 men and 371 women were ascertained to have developed PD. In women, compared with normotensive subjects (<130/80 mm Hg), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of PD associated with high-normal blood pressure (130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive agents) were 1.63 (95% CI: 1.07 to 2.47) and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.09 to 2.42). There was no significant association between blood pressure and PD risk in men. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of PD associated with use of antihypertensive agents were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.48) in men and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.76 to 1.38) in women. This study suggests that, in women, above-optimal blood pressure, including high-normal blood pressure and hypertension, is associated with an increased risk of PD. Optimal control of blood pressure in women may reduce the incidence of PD.
- Received February 6, 2011.
- Revision received February 21, 2011.
- Accepted April 11, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.