β-Blockers in Patients With Intermittent Claudication and Arterial Hypertension
Results From the Nebivolol or Metoprolol in Arterial Occlusive Disease Trial
The use of β-receptor blockers in peripheral arterial disease is controversial for their impact on vasomotor tone. The β-blocker nebivolol possesses vasodilating, endothelium-dependent, NO-releasing properties that might be beneficial in peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects and tolerability of nebivolol in comparison with metoprolol in these patients. A total of 128 patients with intermittent claudication and essential hypertension were included and double-blind randomized to receive 5 mg of nebivolol (N=65) or 95 mg of metoprolol (N=63) once daily. End points were changes in ankle-brachial index, initial and absolute claudication distance, endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, blood pressure, and quality of life using the claudication scale questionnaire. End point analysis was possible in 109 patients (85.2%). After the 48-week treatment period, ankle-brachial index and absolute claudication distance improved significantly in both patient groups (P<0.05 for both), with no difference across treatments. A significant increase of initial claudication distance was found in the nebivolol group. Adjusted mean change of initial claudication distance was 33.9% after nebivolol (P=0.003) and 16.6% after metoprolol (P=0.12) treatment. Quality of life was not influenced by either treatment, and there was no relevant change in flow-mediated dilatation in patients treated with nebivolol or metoprolol (P=0.16). Both drugs were equally effective in lowering blood pressure. In conclusion, β-blocker therapy was well tolerated in patients with intermittent claudication and arterial hypertension during a treatment period of ≈1 year. In the direct comparison, there was no significant difference between nebivolol and metoprolol.
- peripheral arterial disease
- β receptor blockers
- intermittent claudication
- arterial hypertension
- ankle-brachial index
- walking distance
- endothelial dysfunction
- Received December 30, 2010.
- Revision received January 19, 2011.
- Accepted May 12, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.