Heme Oxygenase 1 Is Differentially Involved in Blood Flow–Dependent Arterial Remodeling
Role of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Nitric Oxide
Heme oxygenase 1 is induced by hemodynamic forces in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. We investigated the involvement of heme oxygenase 1 in flow (shear stress)-dependent remodeling. Two or 14 days after ligation of mesenteric resistance arteries, vessels were isolated. In rats, at 14 days, diameter increased by 23% in high-flow arteries and decreased by 22% in low-flow arteries compared with normal flow vessels. Heme oxygenase activity inhibition using Tin-protoporphyrin abolished diameter enlargement in high-flow arteries and accentuated arterial narrowing in low-flow arteries (32% diameter decrease versus 22% in control). Two days after ligation, heme oxygenase 1 expression increased in high-flow and low-flow vessels, in association with a reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity (marker of oxidative stress) in high-flow arteries only. Inhibition of macrophage infiltration (clodronate) decreased heme oxygenase 1 induction in low-flow but not in high-flow arteries. Similarly, inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity (apocynin) decreased heme oxygenase 1 induction in low-flow but not high-flow arteries. However, dihydroethidium staining was higher in high-flow and low-flow compared with normal flow arteries. In arteries cannulated in an arteriograph, heme oxygenase 1 mRNA increased in a flow-dependent manner and was abolished by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, catalase, or mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibition. Furthermore, heme oxygenase 1 induction using cobalt-protoporphyrin restored altered high-flow remodeling in endothelial NO synthase knockout mice. Thus, in high-flow remodeling, heme oxygenase 1 induction depends on shear stress–generated NO and mitochondria-derived hydrogen peroxide. In low-flow remodeling, heme oxygenase 1 induction requires macrophage infiltration and is mediated by NADPH oxidase–derived superoxide.
- Received January 18, 2011.
- Revision received February 8, 2011.
- Accepted May 21, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.