Effect of Antihypertensive Agents on Blood Pressure Variability
The Natrilix SR Versus Candesartan and Amlodipine in the Reduction of Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients (X-CELLENT) Study
Abstract—To investigate the effect of different antihypertensive agents on blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) and the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the ambulatory BP monitoring data of 577 patients before and after 3-month antihypertensive treatment, in the Natrilix SR Versus Candesartan and Amlodipine in the Reduction of Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients (X-CELLENT) Study, a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 4 parallel treatment arms (placebo, candesartan, indapamide sustained release, and amlodipine). Within-subject mean and SD of 24-hour BP, weighted by time interval between consecutive readings, were calculated in 3 time frames (daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours) to evaluate BP and BPV. The mean 24-hour heart rate (HR) and HR variability were calculated with the same algorithms. We found that the 3 antihypertensive drugs had a similar BP-lowering effect (P<0.001 for all), but amlodipine (P<0.007) and indapamide sustained release (P<0.04) were the only agents associated with a significantly decreased BPV after 3-month treatment. On the other hand, the major determinants of BPV at baseline were age, mean BP, and the corresponding HR variability. However, the reduction in BPV by amlodipine was significantly associated with the reduction in BP (P<0.006) and the reduction in HR variability (P<0.02), whereas the corresponding reduction by indapamide sustained release was only associated with the reduction in HR variability at night (P=0.004). In summary, 3-month amlodipine or indapamide sustained release treatment was associated with a significant reduction in BPV, and the mechanism of those reductions was possibly attributable to lowering BP or ameliorating the autonomic nervous system regulation or both. The combination of the 2 agents might help to optimize such properties.
- ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- calcium channel blocker
- blood pressure variability
- heart rate variability
- Received April 8, 2011.
- Revision received April 24, 2011.
- Accepted June 9, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.