Activation of NADPH Oxidase 1 Increases Intracellular Calcium and Migration of Smooth Muscle Cells
Redox-dependent migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central events in the development of vascular proliferative diseases; however, the underlying intracellular signaling mechanisms are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that activation of Nox1 NADPH oxidase modulates intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels. Using cultured SMCs from wild-type and Nox1 null mice, we confirmed that thrombin-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species requires Nox1. Thrombin rapidly increased [Ca2+]i, as measured by fura-2 fluorescence ratio imaging, in wild-type but not Nox1 null SMCs. The increase in [Ca2+]i in wild-type SMCs was inhibited by antisense to Nox1 and restored by expression of Nox1 in Nox1 null SMCs. Investigation into potential mechanisms by which Nox1 modulates [Ca2+]i showed that thrombin-induced inositol triphosphate generation and thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium mobilization were similar in wild-type and Nox1 null SMCs. To examine the effects of Nox1 on Ca2+ entry, cells were either bathed in Ca2+-free medium or exposed to dihydropyridines to block l-type Ca2+ channel activity. Treatment with nifedipine or removal of extracellular Ca2+ reduced the thrombin-mediated increase of [Ca2+]i in wild-type SMCs, whereas the response in Nox1 null SMCs was unchanged. Sodium vanadate, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, restored the thrombin-induced increase of [Ca2+]i in Nox1 null SMCs. Migration of SMCs was impaired with deficiency of Nox1 and restored with expression of Nox1 or the addition of sodium vanadate. In summary, we conclude that Nox1 NADPH oxidase modulates Ca2+ mobilization in SMCs, in part through regulation of Ca2+ influx, to thereby promote cell migration.
- Received May 25, 2011.
- Revision received June 13, 2011.
- Accepted July 7, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.