Angiotensin II Upregulates Protein Phosphatase 2Cα and Inhibits AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Energy Balance Leading to Skeletal Muscle Wasting
Congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease are characterized by chronically elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) and muscle wasting. Ang II causes skeletal muscle wasting by reducing appetite and by enhancing catabolism. The serine/threonine kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions mainly as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is energy sparing and favors ATP generation. We hypothesized that Ang II induces muscle wasting in part by inhibiting AMPK signaling and altering cellular energy balance. Our results show that Ang II infusion in mice reduced gastrocnemius muscle weight by 26% and depleted ATP by 74%. In addition, Ang II upregulated protein phosphatase 2Cα by 2.6-fold and reduced AMPK phosphorylation and signaling in muscle. Importantly, the pharmacological AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside restored AMPK activity to levels of pair-fed controls and reversed Ang II–mediated ATP depletion and muscle wasting. Moreover, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside activated Akt and inhibited Ang II–induced increases in E3 ubiquitin ligase expression. These novel results demonstrate critical roles for energy depletion and AMPK inhibition in Ang II–induced skeletal muscle wasting and suggest a therapeutic potential for AMPK activators in diseases characterized by muscle wasting.
- Received April 25, 2011.
- Revision received May 13, 2011.
- Accepted July 19, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.