Role of Uncoupled Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation
Treatment With Folic Acid
It has been shown that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling occurs in hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, its causal role in vascular pathogenesis has not been characterized previously. Here, we challenged eNOS preuncoupled hyperphenylalaninemia (hph)-1 mice (deficient in eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic enzyme GTPCHI) with angiotensin II (Ang II; 0.7 mg/kg per day, 14 days). Both wild-type and hph-1 groups developed hypertension similarly up to day 6 to 7. Thereafter, ≈14% of Ang II–infused (0.7 mg/kg per day) hph-1 mice (n=72) started to die suddenly of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Among the survivors, 65% developed AAA, resulting in a total morbidity rate of 79%. In contrast, none of the Ang II–infused wild-type mice died or developed AAA. Ang II progressively deteriorated eNOS uncoupling in hph-1 mice while augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin and nitric oxide (NO·) deficiencies. The abundance of the tetrahydrobiopterin salvage enzyme dihydrofolate reductase in the endothelium was decreased in hph-1 mice and further diminished by Ang II infusion. Intriguingly, restoration of dihydrofolate reductase expression by oral administration of folic acid or overexpression of dihydrofolate reductase completely prevented AAA formation in Ang II–infused hph-1 mice while attenuating progressive uncoupling of eNOS. Folic acid also attenuated vascular remodeling and inflammation characterized by medial elastin breakdown and augmented matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity and activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9, as well as macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, these data innovatively suggest a causal role of eNOS uncoupling/tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency in AAA formation. Therefore, oral folic acid administration, endothelium-targeted dihydrofolate reductase gene therapy, and perhaps other countermeasures directed against eNOS uncoupling could be used as new therapeutics for AAA.
- abdominal aortic aneurysm, eNOS uncoupling
- hph-1 mice
- tetrahydrobiopterin, angiotensin II
- folic acid, dihydrofolate reductase
- Received August 24, 2011.
- Revision received September 7, 2011.
- Accepted October 12, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.