Glycogen Phosphorylase Isoenzyme BB Plasma Concentration Is Elevated in Pregnancy and Preterm Preeclampsia
Glycogen phosphorylase is a key enzyme in glycogenolysis. Released with myocardial ischemia, blood concentration of glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) is a marker of acute coronary syndromes. Pregnancy imposes metabolic stress, and preeclampsia is associated with cardiac complications. However, plasma GPBB concentration during pregnancy is unknown. This study was conducted to determine maternal plasma GPBB concentration in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia. Plasma samples from 6 groups (n=396) were studied: nonpregnant and pregnant women with normal term delivery, term and preterm preeclampsia, and term and preterm small-for-gestational-age neonates. GPBB concentration was measured with a specific immunoassay. Placental tissues (n=45) obtained from pregnant women with preterm and term preeclampsia, spontaneous preterm delivery, and normal term delivery were analyzed for potential GPBB expression by immunoblotting. Median plasma GPBB concentration was higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (38.7 versus 9.2 ng/mL; P<0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for age, race, and parity. Maternal plasma GPBB concentrations did not change throughout gestation. Cases of preterm (but not term) preeclampsia had higher median plasma GPBB concentrations than gestational age-matched normal pregnancy cases (72.6 versus 26.0 ng/mL; P=0.001). Small-for-gestational-age neonates did not affect plasma GPBB concentration. GPBB was detected in the placenta and was less abundant in preterm preeclampsia than in preterm delivery cases (P<0.01). There is physiological elevation of plasma GPBB concentration during pregnancy; an increase in maternal plasma GPBB is a novel phenotype of preterm preeclampsia. It is strongly suggested that these changes are attributed to GPBB of placental origin.
- Received June 2, 2011.
- Revision received June 24, 2011.
- Accepted November 21, 2011.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.