Appropriate Time Interval to Repeat Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Patients With White-Coat Resistant Hypertension
Resistant hypertension is defined as uncontrolled office blood pressure, despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive drugs. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is mandatory to diagnose 2 different groups, those with true and white-coat resistant hypertension. Patients are found to change categories between controlled/uncontrolled ambulatory pressures without changing their office blood pressures. In this way, ABPM should be periodically repeated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most appropriate time interval to repeat ABPM to assure sustained blood pressure control in patients with white-coat resistant hypertension. This prospective study enrolled 198 patients (69% women; mean age: 68.9±9.9 years) diagnosed as white-coat resistant hypertension on ABPM. Patients were submitted to a second confirmatory examination 3 months later and repeated twice at 6-month intervals. Statistical analyses included Bland-Altman repeatability coefficients and multivariate logistic regression. Mean office blood pressure was 163±20/84±17 mm Hg, and mean 24-hour blood pressure was 118±8/66±7 mm Hg. White-coat resistant hypertension diagnosis presented a moderate reproducibility and was confirmed in 144 patients after 3 months. In the third and fourth ABPMs, 74% and 79% of patients sustained the diagnosis. In multivariate regression, a daytime systolic blood pressure ≤115 mm Hg in the confirmatory ABPM triplicated the chance of white-coat resistant hypertension status persistence after 1 year. In conclusion, a confirmatory ABPM is necessary after 3 months of the first white-coat–resistant hypertension diagnosis, and the procedure should be repeated at 6-month intervals, except in patients with daytime systolic blood pressure ≤115 mm Hg, in whom it may be repeated annually.
- Received October 10, 2011.
- Revision received October 25, 2011.
- Accepted November 30, 2011.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.