Circulating Vascular Growth Factors and Central Hemodynamic Load in the Community
Mean and pulsatile components of hemodynamic load are related to cardiovascular disease. Vascular growth factors play a fundamental role in vascular remodeling. The links between growth factors and hemodynamic load components are not well described. In 3496 participants from the Framingham Heart Study third generation cohort (mean age: 40±9 years; 52% women), we related 4 tonometry-derived measures of central arterial load (carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and forward pressure wave, mean arterial pressure, and the global reflection coefficient) to circulating concentrations of angiopoietin 2, its soluble receptor; vascular endothelial growth factor, its soluble receptor; hepatocyte growth factor; insulin-like growth factor 1; and its binding protein 3. Using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations were negatively associated with carotid femoral pulse wave velocity, mean arterial pressure, and reflection coefficient (P≤0.01 for all), whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels were positively associated with carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and mean arterial pressure (P<0.04). Serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and soluble angiopoietin 2 receptor levels were positively related to mean arterial pressure and to forward pressure wave, respectively (P<0.05). In our cross-sectional study of a large community-based sample, circulating vascular growth factor levels were related to measures of mean and pulsatile hemodynamic load in a pattern consistent with the known physiological effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor.
- Received July 4, 2011.
- Revision received July 26, 2012.
- Accepted January 31, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.