Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Activation With Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade Is Pivotal for the Prevention of Blood-Brain Barrier Impairment and Cognitive Decline in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
We reported previously that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, improved cognitive decline with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Enhanced blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability with alteration of tight junctions is suggested to be related to diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we examined the possibility that telmisartan could attenuate BBB impairment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation to improve diabetes mellitus–induced cognitive decline. Type 2 diabetic mice KKAy exhibited impairment of cognitive function, and telmisartan treatment attenuated this. Cotreatment with GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonist, interfered with these protective effects of telmisartan against cognitive function. BBB permeability was increased in both the cortex and hippocampus in KKAy mice. Administration of telmisartan attenuated this increased BBB permeability. Coadministration of GW9662 reduced this effect of telmisartan. Significant decreases in expression of tight junction proteins and increases in matrix metalloproteinase expression, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory cytokine production were observed in the brain, and treatment with telmisartan restored these changes. Swollen astroglial end-feet in BBB were observed in KKAy mice, and this change in BBB ultrastructure was decreased in telmisartan. These effects of telmisartan were weakened by cotreatment with GW9662. In contrast, administration of another angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, was less effective compared with telmisartan in terms of preventing BBB permeability and astroglial end-foot swelling, and coadministration of GW9662 did not affect the effects of losartan. These findings are consistent with the possibility that, in type 2 diabetic mice, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation by telmisartan may help with protection against cognitive decline by preserving the integrity of the BBB.
- AT1 receptor blockade
- blood-brain barrier
- cognitive decline
- PPAR-γ activation
- swollen astrocytic end-feet
- Received February 7, 2012.
- Revision received February 27, 2012.
- Accepted March 1, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.