cGMP-Dependent Activation of Protein Kinase G Precludes Disulfide Activation
Implications for Blood Pressure Control
Protein kinase G (PKG) is activated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced cGMP binding or alternatively by oxidant-induced interprotein disulfide formation. We found preactivation with cGMP attenuated PKG oxidation. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) blockade of cGMP production increased disulfide PKG to 13±2% and 29±4% of total in aorta and mesenteries, respectively. This was potentially anomalous, because we observed 2.7-fold higher NO levels in aorta than mesenteries; consequently, we had anticipated that ODQ would induce more disulfide in the conduit vessel. ODQ also constricted aorta, whereas it had no effect on mesenteries. Thus, mesenteries, but not aorta, can compensate for loss of NO-cGMP by recruiting disulfide activation of PKG. Mechanistically, this is explained by loss of cGMP allowing disulfide formation in response to basal oxidant production. Why aorta treated with ODQ generated less PKG disulfide that is insufficient to induce vasoconstriction was unclear. One potential explanation, especially because aorta were much less sensitive than mesenteries to exogenous H2O2-induced relaxation (EC50=205±24 and 33±2 µmol/L, respectively) was that conduit vessels may have higher peroxidase capacity. Indeed, we found that aorta express 49±22% and 80±25% more peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin, respectively, than mesenteries, and their 2-Cys peroxiredoxin peroxidatic cysteines were also less sensitive to hyperoxidation. The higher peroxidase capacity of aortas would explain their constriction during cGMP removal and their insensitivity to H2O2-induced relaxation compared with mesenteries. In summary, cGMP binding to PKG induces a state that is resistant to disulfide formation. Consequently, cGMP depletion sensitizes PKG to oxidation; this happens to a lesser extent in aortas than in mesenteries, because the conduit vessels generate more NO and express more peroxiredoxin.
- Received May 12, 2012.
- Revision received May 28, 2012.
- Accepted August 19, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.