Low-Sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Reduces Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction
Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In salt-sensitive HFPEF animal models, diets low in sodium and high in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage. We hypothesized that the sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH/SRD) would have similar effects in human hypertensive HFPEF. Thirteen patients with treated hypertension and compensated HFPEF consumed the DASH/SRD for 21 days (all food/most beverages provided). The DASH/SRD reduced clinic systolic (155–138 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (79–72 mm Hg; P=0.04), 24-hour ambulatory systolic (130–123 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (67–62 mm Hg; P=0.02), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (12.4–11.0 m/s; P=0.03). Urinary F2-isoprostanes decreased by 31% (209–144 pmol/mmol Cr; P=0.02) despite increased urinary aldosterone excretion. The reduction in urinary F2-isoprostanes closely correlated with the reduction in urinary sodium excretion on the DASH/SRD. In this cohort of HFPEF patients with treated hypertension, the DASH/SRD reduced systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress. These findings are characteristic of salt-sensitive hypertension, a phenotype present in many HFPEF animal models and suggest shared pathophysiological mechanisms linking these 2 conditions. Further dietary modification studies could provide insights into the development and progression of hypertensive HFPEF.
- diastolic heart failure
- dietary sodium
- ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- vascular stiffness
- Received July 23, 2012.
- Revision received August 6, 2012.
- Accepted August 26, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.