Increase in Body Na+/Water Ratio Is Associated With Cerebral Aneurysm Formation in Oophorectomized Rats
The incidence of cerebral aneurysms is higher in women than in men, especially postmenopause. Although hypertension is thought to be associated with a high incidence of stroke, not all patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms are hypertensive. The possibility of water-free Na+ storage associated with hypertension has been raised. However, whether the increase in the body Na+/water ratio that characterizes water-free Na+ accumulation is associated with the formation of cerebral aneurysms remains obscure. To examine this relationship, Sprague-Dawley female rats subjected to carotid artery ligation were divided into 3 groups: a high-salt diet group (HSD) without and another with bilateral oophorectomy (HSD/OVX) and a third group that underwent additional renal artery ligation (HSD/OVX/RL). Compared with rats receiving a normal diet (shams), water retention was increased in HSD rats but not in HSD/OVX rats. Interestingly, compared with HSD rats, the incidence of cerebral aneurysms and the body Na+/water ratio were significantly higher in HSD/OVX and HSD/OVX/RL rats, independent of hypertension. In their aneurysmal wall, ATP1α2, a subtype of Na+/K+-ATPase, was downregulated, whereas inflammatory-related molecules were upregulated. Treatment with low-dose olmesartan that did not affect the blood pressure in hypertensive HSD/OVX/RL rats reduced the rate of cerebral aneurysm formation, body Na+ retention, and the Na+/water ratio and upregulated ATP1α2. These results suggest that the increase in the Na+/water ratio and a reduction in ATP1α2 may be associated with cerebral aneurysm formation. We provide the new insight that the management of water-free Na+ is important to prevent their development.
- Received May 11, 2012.
- Revision received June 11, 2012.
- Accepted August 24, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.