Altered Genes Profile of Renin–Angiotensin System, Immune System, and Adipokines Receptors in Leukocytes of Children With Primary Hypertension
Renin–angiotensin system, metabolic abnormalities, and immune activity have a role in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension. We assessed the leukocyte mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme, renin, angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor, CD14 molecule, adiponectin type 1 receptor, and leptin receptor in hypertensive children before and after nonpharmacological treatment. Leukocyte mRNA expression was measured by means of quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 23 hypertensive children before and after 6 months of nonpharmacological treatment based on dietary advice and physical activities. Twenty-three normotensive children matched for age, sex, and body mass index served as a control group. Before treatment patients had elevated expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and CD14 mRNA, decreased expression of angiotensinogen and angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA, and unchanged expression of renin, adiponectin, and leptin receptors mRNA as compared with controls. Renin mRNA negatively correlated with 24-hour mean arterial pressure and carotid intima-media thickness. Six months of nonpharmacological treatment caused decrease of blood pressure and normalization of metabolic abnormalities. Renin, adiponectin, and leptin receptors mRNA expression decreased and were lower than in control group. Changes in blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, body mass index, and waist circumference did not correlate with changes in the expression of renin–angiotensin system genes, CD14, leptin, and adiponectin receptors mRNA. We conclude that leukocytes of hypertensive children displayed alterations in the expression of renin–angiotensin system genes as well as those of CD14. Nonpharmacological treatment resulted in downregulation of genes involved in renin–angiotensin activation and those engaged in leukocyte responses to adipokines.
- Received September 13, 2012.
- Revision received November 25, 2012.
- Accepted November 26, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.