Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase-1 Attenuates Cold-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension
Chronic exposure to cold caused pulmonary arterial hypertension (cold-induced pulmonary hypertension [CIPH]) and increased phosphodiesterase-1C (PDE-1C) expression in pulmonary arteries (PAs) in rats. The purpose of this study is to investigate a hypothesis that inhibition of PDE-1 would decrease inflammatory infiltrates and superoxide production leading to attenuation of CIPH. Three groups of male rats were exposed to moderate cold (5±1°C) continuously, whereas 3 groups were maintained at room temperature (23.5±1°C, warm; 6 rats/group). After 8-week exposure to cold, 3 groups in each temperature condition received continuous intravenous infusion of 8-isobutyl-methylxanthine (8-IBMX) (PDE-1 inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or vehicle, respectively, for 1 week. Cold exposure significantly increased right-ventricular systolic pressure compared with warm groups (33.8±3.2 versus 18.6±0.3 mm Hg), indicating that animals developed CIPH. Notably, treatment with 8-IBMX significantly attenuated the cold-induced increase in right ventricular pressure (23.5±1.8 mm Hg). Cold exposure also caused right-ventricular hypertrophy, whereas 8-IBMX reversed cold-induced right ventricular hypertrophy. Cold exposure increased PDE-1C protein expression, macrophage infiltration, NADPH oxidase activity, and superoxide production in PAs and resulted in PA remodeling. 8-IBMX abolished cold-induced upregulation of PDE-1C in PAs. Interestingly, inhibition of PDE-1 eliminated cold-induced macrophage infiltration, NADPH oxidase activation, and superoxide production in PAs and reversed PA remodeling. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin abolished cold-induced superoxide production and attenuated CIPH and PA remodeling. In conclusion, inhibition of PDE-1 attenuated CIPH and reversed cold-induced PA remodeling by suppressing macrophage infiltration and superoxide production, suggesting that upregulation of PDE-1C expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of CIPH.
- blood pressure
- macrophage infiltration
- NADPH oxidase
- pulmonary artery
- right ventricle
- smooth muscle cell proliferation
- Received November 18, 2012.
- Revision received December 20, 2012.
- Accepted December 20, 2012.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.