Effects on Insulin Action of Adding Low-Dose Thiazide to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor in Essential Hypertension
Concern exists regarding adverse metabolic effects of antihypertensive agents. In the United States, diuretics are recommended first-line but additional agents, usually angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, are often required to meet blood pressure targets. We have previously shown that the combination of low-dose diuretic with an ACE inhibitor has detrimental effects on insulin action compared with ACE inhibitor alone in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Our aim was to establish whether similar effects occur in nondiabetic hypertensive patients using this combination. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design was used. After a 6-week run-in, when regular antihypertensive medications were withdrawn and placebo substituted, patients received captopril 50 mg twice daily with either bendroflumethiazide 1.25 mg (CB) or placebo (CP) for 12 weeks with a 6-week wash-out between treatments. Insulin action was assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp after the 6-week run-in and at the end of each treatment period. There were no differences between treatments in fasting glucose or insulin concentrations. Glucose infusion rates required to maintain euglycemia were the same with each treatment (CP 22.1±2.2 vs CB 22.2±2.2 μmol/kg per minute). There was no difference in endogenous glucose production in the basal state (CP 8.9±0.5 vs CB 9.5±0.7 μmol/kg per minute; P=0.23) or during hyperinsulinemia (CP 2.2±0.6 vs CB 1.5±0.3 μmol/kg per minute; P=0.30). In contrast to the situation in type 2 diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitor combined with low-dose thiazide diuretic does not adversely affect insulin action when compared with ACE inhibitor alone in nondiabetic hypertensive patients.
- Received August 27, 2012.
- Revision received January 8, 2013.
- Accepted January 21, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.