Angiotensin-(1–7) in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Modulates Enhanced Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex and Sympathetic Activation in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats
Enhancement of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic excitation in hypertension. The aim of the present study was to determine whether angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) modulated the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation, and the signaling pathways that mediated these effects in the 2-kidney, 1-clip renovascular hypertension model. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex was evaluated using renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure responses to epicardial capsaicin application in anesthetized sinoaortic-denervated and cervical-vagotomized rats. RVLM microinjection of Ang-(1–7) induced greater increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure, and greater enhancement in CSAR in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats than in sham-operated rats, which was blocked by Mas receptor antagonist A-779, adenylyl cyclase inhibitors SQ22536 and MDL-12,330A, and protein kinase A inhibitors rp-adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothionate and H-89. Mas receptor expression in RVLM was increased in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats. Treatment with A-779, SQ22536, MDL-12,330A, rp-adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothionate, or H-89 in RVLM inhibited CSAR and decreased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats, whereas cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP had the opposite effects. Ang-(1–7) in RVLM increased, whereas A-779 decreased the cAMP level and the epicardial capsaicin application-induced increases in the cAMP level in RVLM. These results indicate that Ang-(1–7) in the RVLM enhances the CSAR and increases the sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via Mas receptor activation. The increased endogenous Ang-(1–7) and Mas receptor activity in RVLM contributes to the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension, and the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway is involved in these Ang-(1–7)–mediated effects in the RVLM.
- Received December 19, 2012.
- Revision received January 28, 2013.
- Accepted January 28, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.