Left-Ventricular Structure in the Southall And Brent REvisited (SABRE) Study
Explaining Ethnic Differences
Cardiometabolic risk is elevated in South Asians and African Caribbeans compared with Europeans, yet whether this is associated with ethnic differences in left-ventricular structure is unclear. Conventional M-mode or 2-dimensional echocardiography may be misleading, because they calculate left-ventricular mass and remodeling using geometric assumptions. Left-ventricular structure was compared in a triethnic population-based cohort using conventional and 3-dimensional echocardiography on 895 individuals (aged 55–85 years; 427 European, 325 South Asian, 143 African Caribbean). Left-ventricular mass was indexed, and left-ventricle remodeling index and relative wall thickness were calculated. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting bloods were measured. Three-dimensional left-ventricular mass index did not differ between Europeans (mean±SE, 29.8±0.3 g/m2.7) and African Caribbeans (29.9±0.5 g/m2.7; P=0.9), but it was significantly lower in South Asians (28.1±0.4 g/m2.7; P<0.0001) compared with Europeans. These findings persisted on multivariate adjustment. In contrast, conventional left-ventricle mass index was significantly higher in African Caribbeans (46.4±0.9 g/m2.7) than in Europeans (41.9±0.5 g/m2.7; P<0.0001). Left-ventricle remodeling index was the highest in African Caribbeans and the lowest in South Asians. Relative wall thickness was also higher in African Caribbeans, but no different in South Asians, compared with Europeans. Differences in left-ventricle remodeling index were attenuated by adjustment for cardiometabolic factors between African Caribbeans and Europeans only. In conclusion, left-ventricular mass is lower in South Asians and equivalent in African Caribbeans compared with Europeans, even when cardiometabolic risk factors are accounted for. Left-ventricular remodeling rather than hypertrophy may explain the increased risk of heart failure in people of African Caribbean origin.
- cardiometabolic disease
- conventional echocardiography
- left-ventricular mass
- left-ventricular remodeling
- three-dimensional echocardiography
- Received November 12, 2012.
- Revision received February 13, 2013.
- Accepted February 13, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.