Targeted Delivery of Carbaprostacyclin to Ischemic Hindlimbs Enhances Adaptive Remodeling of the Microvascular Network
Prostacyclin and its stable analogs play an important vascular protective role by promoting angiogenesis, but their role in arteriolar growth is unclear. Here, we examined the effect of prostacyclin stable analog carbaprostacyclin on arteriolar growth in mouse hindlimb ischemia. Using an osmotic-controlled release system to continuously deliver carbaprostacyclin or saline (control) to ischemic mouse hindlimbs for up to 14 days, we found that blood perfusion was significantly better at 7 and 14 days in carbaprostacyclin-treated mice than in saline-treated mice. Microscopic examination of the microvasculature showed more morphological signs of arteriolar formation in carbaprostacyclin- versus saline-treated legs. A double-blind, quantitative microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that carbaprostacyclin-treated legs had markedly increased vascular volume and small- to medium-sized vessel numbers that correspond to decreased vessel separation. A proteome profiler antibody array demonstrated that carbaprostacyclin-treated ischemic muscles secreted significantly higher amounts of acidic fibroblast growth factor and other chemokines. Conditioned media containing those secreted factors promoted smooth muscle cell growth and migration. Additionally, increased acidic fibroblast growth factor protein levels were detected in smooth muscle cells and skeletal myotubes at different time periods after carbaprostacyclin treatment. Furthermore, the selective peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor β/δ antagonist significantly suppressed carbaprostacyclin-induced acidic fibroblast growth factor protein production. Collectively, our data provide the first morphological and molecular evidence that local delivery of carbaprostacyclin promotes vascular growth in hindlimb ischemia, and that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor β/δ signaling plays a critical role in inducing acidic fibroblast growth factor expression.
- acidic fibroblast growth factor
- hindlimb ischemia
- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ
- Received October 19, 2012.
- Revision received February 21, 2013.
- Accepted February 22, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.