Monoamine Oxidases Are Mediators of Endothelial Dysfunction in the Mouse Aorta
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) generate H2O2 as a by-product of their catalytic cycle. Whether MAOs are mediators of endothelial dysfunction is unknown and was determined here in the angiotensin II and lipopolysaccharide-models of vascular dysfunction in mice. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that mouse aortas contain enzymes involved in catecholamine generation and MAO-A and MAO-B mRNA. MAO-A and -B proteins could be detected by Western blot not only in mouse aortas but also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Ex vivo incubation of mouse aorta with recombinant MAO-A increased H2O2 formation and induced endothelial dysfunction that was attenuated by polyethylene glycol-catalase and MAO inhibitors. In vivo lipopolysaccharide (8 mg/kg IP overnight) or angiotensin II (1 mg/kg per day, 2 weeks, minipump) treatment induced vascular MAO-A and -B expressions and resulted in attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in response to acetylcholine. MAO inhibitors reduced the lipopolysaccharide- and angiotensin II–induced aortic reactive oxygen species formation by 50% (ferrous oxidation xylenol orange assay) and partially normalized endothelium-dependent relaxation. MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors had an additive effect; combined application completely restored endothelium-dependent relaxation. To determine how MAO-dependent H2O2 formation induces endothelial dysfunction, cyclic GMP was measured. Histamine stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to activate endothelial NO synthase resulted in an increase in cyclic GMP, which was almost abrogated by MAO-A exposure. MAO inhibition prevented this effect, suggesting that MAO-induced H2O2 formation is sufficient to attenuate endothelial NO release. Thus, MAO-A and MAO-B are both expressed in the mouse aorta, induced by in vivo lipopolysaccharide and angiotensin II treatment and contribute via the generation of H2O2 to endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease models.
- monoamine oxidase
- mouse models of disease
- nitric oxide
- nitric oxide synthase (endothelial)
- oxidative stress
- Received February 27, 2013.
- Revision received April 16, 2013.
- Accepted April 16, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.