Immunosenescent CD8+ T Cells and C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 3 Chemokines Are Increased in Human Hypertension
The pathogenic role of T cells in hypertension has been documented well in recent animal studies. However, the existence of T-cell–driven inflammation in human hypertension has not been confirmed. Therefore, we undertook immunologic characterization of T cells from patients with hypertension and measured circulating levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines, which are well-known tissue-homing chemokines for T cells. We analyzed immunologic markers on T cells from patients with hypertension by multicolor flow cytometry. We then measured circulating levels of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines, monokine induced by γ interferon (IFN), IFN γ–induced protein 10, and IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant, in patients with hypertension and in age- and sex-matched control subjects by the cytometric bead array method. In addition, we examined histological features of IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant expression from renal biopsy specimens of patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and control subjects. The total T-cell population from patients with hypertension showed an increased fraction of immunosenescent, proinflammatory, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Circulating levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines were significantly higher in patients with hypertension than in control subjects. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed increased expression of the T-cell chemokine, IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant, in the proximal and distal tubules of patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Immunosenescent CD8+ T cells and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines are increased in human hypertension, suggesting a role for T-cell–driven inflammation in hypertension. A more detailed characterization of CD8+ T cells may offer new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of human hypertension.
- Received February 14, 2013.
- Revision received March 11, 2013.
- Accepted April 27, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.