Resveratrol Improves Vascular Function in Patients With Hypertension and Dyslipidemia by Modulating NO Metabolism
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet, which is rich in resveratrol, is associated with a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of resveratrol on cardiovascular function remain incompletely understood. Therefore, we set out to identify the molecular target(s) mediating the protective action of resveratrol on vascular function. To this end, we performed vascular reactivity studies to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on superior thyroid artery obtained from 59 patients with hypertensive dyslipidemia. We found that resveratrol evoked vasorelaxation and reduced endothelial dysfunction through the modulation of NO metabolism via (1) an 5′ adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase–mediated increase in endothelial NO synthase activity; (2) a rise in tetrahydrobiopterin levels, which also increases endothelial NO synthase activity; and (3) attenuation of vascular oxidative stress, brought about by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase via an nuclear factor erythroid–derived 2-like 2–dependent mechanism. The effects of resveratrol on acetylcholine vasorelaxation were also tested in vessels from patients with nonhypertensive nondyslipidemia undergoing thyroid surgery. In this setting, resveratrol failed to exert any effect. Thus, our finding that resveratrol reduces endothelial dysfunction, an early pathophysiological feature and independent predictor of poor prognosis in most forms of cardiovascular disease, supports the concept that the risk of vascular events could be further reduced by adherence to a set of dietary and behavioral guidelines.
- Received January 7, 2013.
- Revision received January 30, 2013.
- Accepted May 17, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.