Increased Salt Sensitivity of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Women With a History of Severe Preeclampsia
Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death in women in developed countries and are importantly promoted by hypertension. The salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is considered as an important cardiovascular risk factor at any BP level. Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that arises as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study measured the salt sensitivity of BP in women with a severe preeclampsia compared with women with no pregnancy hypertensive complications. Forty premenopausal women were recruited 10 years after delivery in a case–control study. Salt sensitivity was defined as an increase of >4 mm Hg in 24-hour ambulatory BP on a high-sodium diet. The ambulatory BP response to salt was significantly increased in women with a history of preeclampsia compared with that of controls. The mean (95% confidence interval) daytime systolic/diastolic BP increased significantly from 115 (109–118)/79 (76–82) mm Hg on low-salt diet to 123 (116–130)/80 (76–84) on a high-salt diet in women with preeclampsia, but not in the control group (from 111 [104–119]/77 [72–82] to 111 [106–116]/75 [72–79], respectively, P<0.05). The sodium sensitivity index (SSI=Δmean arterial pressure/Δurinary Na excretion×1000) was 51.2 (19.1–66.2) in women with preeclampsia and 6.6 (5.8–18.1) mm Hg/mol per day in controls (P=0.015). The nocturnal dip was blunted on a high-salt diet in women with preeclampsia. Our study shows that women who have developed preeclampsia are salt sensitive before their menopause, a finding that may contribute to their increased cardiovascular risk. Women with a history of severe preeclampsia should be targeted at an early stage for preventive measures of cardiovascular diseases.
- Received June 24, 2013.
- Revision received July 9, 2013.
- Accepted July 18, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.