Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor Stimulation Ameliorates Left Ventricular Fibrosis and Dysfunction via Regulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Axis and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in the Rat Heart
Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is the main reason for the development of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated whether stimulation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor is able to ameliorate post-MI cardiac remodeling and what the underlying mechanisms may be. MI was induced in Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Treatment with the angiotensin type 2 receptor agonist compound 21 ( 0.03 mg/kg) was started 6 hours post-MI and continued for 6 weeks. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by echocardiography and intracardiac catheter. Effects on proteolysis were studied in heart tissue and primary cardiac fibroblasts. Compound 21 significantly improved systolic and diastolic functions, resulting in improved ejection fraction (71.2±4.7% versus 53.4±7.0%; P<0.001), fractional shortening (P<0.05), LV internal dimension in systole (P<0.05), LV end-diastolic pressure (16.9±1.2 versus 22.1±1.4 mm Hg; P<0.05), ratio of early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, and maximum and minimum rate of LV pressure rise (P<0.05). Compound 21 improved arterial stiffness parameters and reduced collagen content in peri-infarct myocardium. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 was strongly upregulated, whereas matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and transforming growth factor β1 were diminished in LV of treated animals. In cardiac fibroblasts, compound 21 initially induced tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression followed by attenuated matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transforming growth factor β1 secretion. In conclusion, angiotensin type 2 receptor stimulation improves cardiac function and prevents cardiac remodeling in the late stage after MI, suggesting that angiotensin type 2 receptor agonists may be considered a future pharmacological approach for the improvement of post-MI cardiac dysfunction.
- Received October 1, 2013.
- Revision received November 1, 2013.
- Accepted November 20, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.