Nitric Oxide Decreases the Permselectivity of the Paracellular Pathway in Thick Ascending Limbs
Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 25% to 30% of the filtered NaCl. About 50% to 70% is reabsorbed via the transcellular pathway and 30% to 50% is reabsorbed through the Na-selective paracellular pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits transepithelial Na reabsorption, but its effects on the paracellular pathway are unknown. We hypothesized that NO decreases the selectivity of the paracellular pathway in thick ascending limbs via cGMP-dependent protein kinase. To assess relative Na/Cl permeability ratios (PNa/PCl), we perfused rat thick ascending limbs and measured the effect of reducing bath NaCl on transepithelial voltage, creating dilution potentials, with vehicle, NO donors, and endogenous NO. PNa/PCl was calculated using the Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz equation. Reducing bath Na/Cl to 16/8, 32/24, and 64/56 mmol/L created dilution potentials of −13.6±2.2, −10.8±3.0, and −6.1±0.9 mV, respectively. Calculated PNa/PCls were 2.0±0.2, 2.2±0.5, and 1.9±0.2. The NO donor spermine NONOate (200 µmol/L) blunted the dilution potential caused by 32/24 mmol/L Na/Cl from −11.1±2.1 to −6.5±1.6 mV (P<0.004) and PNa/PCl from 2.2±0.4 to 1.5±0.2. Nitroglycerin (200 µmol/L), another NO donor, also reduced PNa/PCl. Controls showed no significant changes. Dibutyryl-cGMP decreased dilution potentials from −13.4±2.9 to −7.5±1.8 mV (n=6; P<0.01). cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibition with KT5823 (4 µmol/L) blocked the effect of spermine NONOate, whereas phosphodiesterase 2 inhibition did not. Endogenously produced NO mimicked the effect of the NO donors. In conclusion, NO reduces the selectivity of the paracellular pathway in thick ascending limbs via cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase.
- Received February 16, 2015.
- Revision received February 26, 2015.
- Accepted March 19, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.