Increased Epithelial Sodium Channel Activity Contributes to Hypertension Caused by Na+-HCO3− Cotransporter Electrogenic 2 Deficiency
The gene SLC4A5 encodes the Na+-HCO3− cotransporter electrogenic 2, which is located in the distal nephron. Genetically deleting Na+-HCO3− cotransporter electrogenic 2 (knockout) causes Na+-retention and hypertension, a phenotype that is diminished with alkali loading. We performed experiments with acid-loaded mice and determined whether overactive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) or the Na+-Cl− cotransporter causes the Na+ retention and hypertension in knockout. In untreated mice, the mean arterial pressure was higher in knockout, compared with wild-type (WT); however, treatment with amiloride, a blocker of ENaC, abolished this difference. In contrast, hydrochlorothiazide, an inhibitor of Na+-Cl− cotransporter, decreased mean arterial pressure in WT, but not knockout. Western blots showed that quantity of plasmalemmal full-length ENaC-α was significantly higher in knockout than in WT. Amiloride treatment caused a 2-fold greater increase in Na+ excretion in knockout, compared with WT. In knockout, but not WT, amiloride treatment decreased plasma [Na+] and urinary K+ excretion, but increased hematocrit and plasma [K+] significantly. Micropuncture with microelectrodes showed that the [K+] was significantly higher and the transepithelial potential (Vte) was significantly lower in the late distal tubule of the knockout compared with WT. The reduced Vte in knockout was amiloride sensitive and therefore revealed an upregulation of electrogenic ENaC-mediated Na+ reabsorption in this segment. These results show that, in the absence of Na+-HCO3− cotransporter electrogenic 2 in the late distal tubule, acid-loaded mice exhibit disinhibition of ENaC-mediated Na+ reabsorption, which results in Na+ retention, K+ wasting, and hypertension.
- Received February 25, 2015.
- Revision received March 9, 2015.
- Accepted April 14, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.