Remodeling of Afferent Arterioles From Mice With Oxidative Stress Does Not Account for Increased Contractility but Does Limit Excessive Wall Stress
Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) knockout enhances arteriolar remodeling and contractility, we hypothesized that remodeling enhances contractility. In the isolated and perfused renal afferent arterioles from SOD wild type (+/+) and gene-deleted mice, contractility was assessed from reductions in luminal diameter with perfusion pressure from 40 to 80 mm Hg (myogenic responses) or angiotensin II (10−6 mol/L), remodeling from media:lumen area ratio, superoxide (O2·−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from fluorescence microscopy, and wall stress from wall tension/wall thickness. Compared with +/+ strains, arterioles from SOD1−/−, SOD2+/−, and SOD3−/− mice developed significantly (P<0.05) more O2·− with perfusion pressure and angiotensin II and significantly increased myogenic responses (SOD1−/−: −20.7±2.2% versus −12.7±1.6%; SOD2+/−: −7.4±1.3% versus −12.6±1.4%; and SOD3−/−: −9.1±1.9% versus −15.8±2.2%) and angiotensin II contractions and ≈2-fold increased media:lumen ratios. Media:lumen ratios correlated with myogenic responses (r2 =0.23; P<0.01), angiotensin II contractions (r2=0.57; P<0.0001), and active wall tension (r2 =0.19; P<0.01), but not with active wall stress (r2=0.08; NS). Differences in myogenic responses among SOD3 mice were abolished by bath addition of SOD and were increased 3 days after inducing SOD3 knockout (−26.9±1.7% versus −20.1±0.7%; P<0.05), despite unchanged media:lumen ratios (2.01±0.09 versus 2.02±0.03; NS). We conclude that cytosolic, mitochondrial, or extracellular O2·− enhance afferent arteriolar contractility and remodeling. Although remodeling does not enhance contractility, it does prevent the potentially damaging effects of increased wall stress.
- Received April 11, 2015.
- Revision received April 26, 2015.
- Accepted May 27, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.