Depressed Corin Levels Indicate Early Systolic Dysfunction Before Increases of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide/B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Heart Failure Development
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure (HF) that affects millions. Corin cleaves and biologically activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) and pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP). High corin levels reduce the development of systolic dysfunction and HF in experimental dilated cardiomyopathy. Yet, patients with significant HF unexpectedly show low corin levels with high plasma ANP/BNP levels. Therefore, we examined the relationship between cardiac corin expression, ANP/BNP levels, and the stages of HF. We used a well-established, dilated cardiomyopathy model to evaluate gene and protein expression as mice longitudinally developed Stages A–D HF. Cardiac systolic function (ejection fraction) continuously declined over time (P<0.001). Cardiac corin transcripts were decreased at early Stage B HF and remained low through Stages C and D (P<0.001). Cardiac corin levels were positively correlated with systolic function (r=0.96, P=0.003) and inversely with lung water (r=−0.92, P=0.001). In contrast, cardiac pro-ANP/BNP transcripts increased later (Stages C and D) and plasma levels rose only with terminal HF (Stage D, P<0.001). Immunoreactive plasma ANP and BNP levels were positively associated with plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (r=0.82, P=0.01 and r=0.8, P=0.02, respectively). In experimental dilated cardiomyopathy, corin levels declined early with progressive systolic dysfunction before the development of HF, whereas significant increases in plasma ANP, BNP, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels were found only in later stage (C and D) HF. This dyssynchrony in expression of corin versus ANP/BNP may impair cleavage activation of pro-natriuretic peptides, and thereby promote the transition from earlier to later stage HF.
- Received August 14, 2015.
- Revision received August 28, 2015.
- Accepted November 18, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.