Adrenal Venous Sampling in Patients With Positive Screening but Negative Confirmatory Testing for Primary Aldosteronism
Adrenal venous sampling is considered to be the most reliable diagnostic procedure to lateralize aldosterone excess in primary aldosteronism (PA). However, normative criteria have not been established partially because of a lack of data in non-PA hypertensive patients. The aim of the study was to investigate aldosterone concentration and its gradient in the adrenal vein of non-PA hypertensive patients. We retrospectively studied the results of cosyntropin-stimulated adrenal venous sampling in 40 hypertensive patients who showed positive screening testing but negative results in 2 confirmatory tests/captopril challenge test and saline infusion test. Plasma aldosterone concentration, aldosterone/cortisol ratio, its higher/lower ratio (lateralization index) in the adrenal vein with cosyntropin stimulation were measured. Median plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal vein was 25 819 pg/mL (range, 5154–69 920) in the higher side and 12 953 (range, 1866–36 190) pg/mL in the lower side (P<0.001). There was a significant gradient in aldosterone/cortisol ratio between the higher and the lower sides (27.2 [5.4–66.0] versus 17.3 [4.0–59.0] pg/mL per μg/dL; P<0.001) with lateralization index ranging from 1.01 to 3.87. The aldosterone lateralization gradient was between 1 to 2 in 32 patients and 2 to 4 in 8 patients. None of the patients showed lateralization index ≥4. The present study demonstrated that plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal veins showed significant variation and lateralization gradient even in non-PA hypertensive patients. Adrenal venous sampling aldosterone lateralization gradients between 2 and 4 should be interpreted with caution in patients with PA because these gradients can be found even in patients with negative confirmatory testing for PA.
- Received October 2, 2015.
- Revision received October 26, 2015.
- Accepted February 18, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.