Aldosterone-Induced Vascular Remodeling and Endothelial Dysfunction Require Functional Angiotensin Type 1a Receptors
We investigated the role of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AGTR1a) in vascular injury induced by aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors in Agtr1a−/− and wild-type (WT) mice infused with aldosterone for 14 days while receiving 1% NaCl in drinking water. Aldosterone increased systolic blood pressure (BP) by ≈30 mm Hg in WT mice and ≈50 mm Hg in Agtr1a−/− mice. Aldosterone induced aortic and small artery remodeling, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in WT mice, and enhanced fibronectin and collagen deposition and vascular inflammation. None of these vascular effects were observed in Agtr1a−/− mice. Aldosterone effects were prevented by the AGTR1 antagonist losartan in WT mice. In contrast to aldosterone, norepinephrine caused similar BP increase and mesenteric artery remodeling in WT and Agtr1a−/− mice. Agtr1a−/− mice infused with aldosterone did not increase sodium excretion in response to a sodium chloride challenge, suggesting that sodium retention could contribute to the exaggerated BP rise induced by aldosterone. Agtr1a−/− mice had decreased mesenteric artery expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel Kcnmb1, which may enhance myogenic tone and together with sodium retention, exacerbate BP responses to aldosterone/salt in Agtr1a−/− mice. We conclude that although aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors raises BP more in Agtr1a−/− mice, AGTR1a is required for mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation to induce vascular remodeling and inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
- oxidative stress
- potassium channels, calcium-activated
- vascular remodeling
- Received December 29, 2015.
- Revision received January 11, 2016.
- Accepted January 18, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.