Prehypertension During Normotensive Pregnancy and Postpartum Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
A Prospective Cohort Study
The nonstratification of blood pressure (BP) levels may underestimate future cardiovascular risk in pregnant women who present with BP levels in the range of prehypertension (120–139/80–89 mm Hg). We prospectively evaluated the relationship between multiple antepartum BP measurements (from 11+0 to 13+6 weeks’ gestation to term) and the occurrence of postpartum metabolic syndrome in 507 normotensive pregnant women after a live birth. By using latent class growth modeling, we identified the following 3 distinctive diastolic BP (DBP) trajectory groups: the low-J-shaped group (34.2%; DBP from 62.5±5.8 to 65.0±6.8 mm Hg), the moderate-U-shaped group (52.6%; DBP from 71.0±5.9 to 69.8±6.2 mm Hg), and the elevated-J-shaped group (13.2%; DBP from 76.2±6.7 to 81.8±4.8 mm Hg). Notably, the elevated-J-shaped trajectory group had mean DBP and systolic BP levels within the range of prehypertension from 37+0 and 26+0 weeks of pregnancy, respectively. Among the 309 women who completed the ≈1.6 years of postpartum follow-up, the women in the elevated-J-shaped group had greater odds of developing postpartum metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 6.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.79–23.92; P=0.004) than the low-J-shaped group. Moreover, a parsimonious model incorporating DBP (membership in the elevated-J-shaped group but not in the DBP prehypertension group as identified by a single measurement) and elevated levels of fasting glucose (>4.99 mmol/L) and triglycerides (>3.14 mmol/L) at term was developed, with good discrimination and calibration for postpartum metabolic syndrome (c-statistic, 0.764; 95% confidence interval, 0.674–0.855; P<0.001). Therefore, prehypertension identified by DBP trajectories throughout pregnancy is an independent risk factor for predicting postpartum metabolic syndrome in normotensive pregnant women.
- Received February 1, 2016.
- Revision received February 15, 2016.
- Accepted May 9, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.