Prevalence of Hypertensive Phenotypes After Preeclampsia
A Prospective Cohort Study
Preeclampsia is associated with increased cardiovascular and renal risk. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to characterize the early postpartum blood pressure (BP) profile after preeclampsia. We enrolled 115 women with preeclampsia and 41 women with a normal pregnancy in a prospective cohort study. At 6 to 12 week postpartum, we assessed the prevalence of different hypertensive phenotypes using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as well as the risk of salt sensitivity and the variability of BP derived from ABPM parameters. Among patients with preeclampsia, 57.4% were still hypertensive at the office. Daytime ABP was significantly higher in the preeclampsia group (118.9±15.0/83.2±10.4 mm Hg) than in controls (104.8±7.9/71.6±5.3 mm Hg; P<0.01). Differences between groups were similar for nocturnal BP values. Fifty percent of preeclampsia women remained hypertensive on ABPM in the postpartum, of whom 24.3% were still under antihypertensive treatment; 17.9% displayed a white-coat hypertension and 11.6% had masked hypertension. In controls, 2.8% had white-coat hypertension; none had masked hypertension or needed hypertensive treatment. The prevalence of nondippers was similar 59.8% in the preeclampsia group versus 51.4% in controls. High-risk class of salt sensitivity of BP was increased in preeclampsia women (48.6%) compared with controls (17.1%); P<0.01. In conclusion, ABPM 6 to 12 weeks after delivery reveals a high rate of sustained ambulatory, nocturnal, and masked hypertension after preeclampsia. This finding may help identify women who should be included in a postpartum cardiovascular risk management program.
- Received May 30, 2017.
- Revision received June 16, 2017.
- Accepted September 13, 2017.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.