- References must conform to the journal's style -- consult the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 10th ed, New York, Oxford University Press, 2007.(NOTE: All authors must be listed in the author listing unless the number of authors exceed 15. If there are 16 or more authors, list the first three authors followed by et al.)
Please note that if you use reference software tools (e.g. EndNote or Reference Manager), they do not always match our style, and you may need to manually correct your references.
- Accuracy of reference data is the author's responsibility. Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, inclusive page numbers, publication dates, accents, diacritical marks, and spelling in languages other than English.
- All references must be double-spaced.
- All authors must be listed in references. Shortened lists of author names followed by "et al" must be replaced with complete information unless the number of authors exceeds 15. If there are 16 or more authors, list the first three authors followed by et al.
- Cite references in numerical order according to first mention in text.
- Personal communications, unpublished observations, and submitted manuscripts must be cited in the text as "(authors' full names, unpublished data, year)."
- Abstracts may be cited only if they are the sole source and must be identified in the reference as "Abstract."
- "In press" citations must have been accepted for publication and the name of the journal or book publisher included.