Table 5.

Associations of Individual Urinary Phthalate Metabolites With Blood Pressure Outcomes in Linear and Logistic Regression Analyses

Increments*/Odds RatioChange, z-Score SBP (n=1328)Change, z-Score DBP (n=1328)Odds Ratio, BP≥ 90th Percentile (n=1328)
Low-molecular weight phthalates
 Log-transformed MEP+0.05 (−0.02, +0.13)+0.07 (−0.10, +0.23)1.16 (0.76, 1.79)
 Log-transformed MBP−0.07 (−0.18, +0.04)+0.03 (−0.14, +0.20)0.57 (0.25, 1.31)
 Log-transformed MiBP−0.02 (−0.12, +0.09)−0.02 (−0.20, +0.15)1.02 (0.53, 1.94)
 Log-transformed MMP−0.02 (−0.07, +0.04)−0.03 (−0.13, +0.07)0.95 (0.72, 1.25)
High-molecular weight metabolites (non-DEHP)
 Log-transformed MBzP−0.01 (−0.11, +0.09)−0.002 (−0.14, +0.13)0.78 (0.47, 1.30)
 Log-transformed MCPP+0.07 (−0.03, +0.18)+0.05 (−0.07, +0.16)0.97 (0.52, 1.83)
 Log-transformed MCOP+0.11 (0.03, +0.18)+0.02 (−0.08, +0.12)1.21 (0.75, 1.94)
 Log-transformed MNP+0.09 (0.03, +0.14)+0.05 (−0.04, +0.14)1.28 (0.92, 1.79)
 Log-transformed MCNP+0.10 (0.03, +0.17)+0.04 (−0.03, +0.11)1.06 (0.72, 1.54)
High-molecular weight metabolites of DEHP
 Log-transformed MEHP+0.06 (−0.03, +0.12)+0.04 (−0.02, +0.10)1.09 (0.79, 1.50)
 Log-transformed MEHHP+0.09 (+0.02, +0.16)+0.09 (+0.01, +0.16)1.27 (0.89, 1.81)
 Log-transformed MEOHP+0.08 (+0.01, +0.16)+0.09 (+0.002, +0.16)1.18 (0.83, 1.66)
 Log-transformed MECPP+0.11 (+0.03, +0.19)+0.07 (−0.01, +0.16)1.47 (0.95, 2.27)
  • BMI indicates body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DEHP, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; DIDP, di-isodecyl phthalate; DINP, di-isononyl phthalate; HMW, low-molecular weight; LMW, low-molecular weight; MBP, mono-n-butyl-phthalate; MBzP, mono-benzylphthalate; MCNP, mono-carboxyisononyl phthalate; MCOP, mono-carboxyisooctyl phthalate; MCPP, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate; MECPP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate; MEHP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; MEHHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate; MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; MEP, mono-ethyl phthalate; MiBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate; MMP, mono-n-methylphthalate; MNP, mono-isononylphthalate; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • * Increases are per log unit in urinary LMW/HMW/DEHP/DIDP/DINP metabolite concentration. See Methods for calculation. All models control for continuous urinary creatinine, age, and caloric intake, as well as sex, poverty–income ratio, serum cotinine, BMI, race/ethnicity categories, and physical activity.

  • P<0.05.

  • P<0.01.