Table 2.

Comparison of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in Study Population With Blood Pressure Data in Pooled 2009 to 2012 NHANES (n=1329)

CharacteristicsMean Urinary LMW Metabolite (μmolar)P Value*Mean Urinary HMW Metabolite (μmolar)P Value*Mean Urinary DEHP Metabolite (μmolar)P Value*Mean Urinary DIDP Metabolite (μmolar)P Value*Mean Urinary DINP Metabolite (μmolar)P Value
Sex
 Male0.379Ref.0.387Ref.0.195Ref.0.009Ref.0.071Ref.
 Female0.4790.0030.3970.850.1940.960.0100.680.0770.58
Age group, y
 6–110.593Ref.0.514Ref.0.241Ref.0.013Ref.0.103Ref.
 12–190.5110.160.3570.0020.1740.0110.009<0.0010.0720.01
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic-Mexican American0.631Ref.0.404Ref.0.208Ref.0.009Ref.0.065Ref.
 Hispanic-Other Hispanic0.3320.0010.4160.840.1960.770.0110.0080.0810.15
 Non-Hispanic White0.4420.0010.4170.800.1940.600.0110.060.0930.046
 Non-Hispanic Black0.7790.070.3360.170.1720.180.0090.540.0570.42
 Other0.5280.430.4170.850.2050.950.0080.730.0800.30
Poverty–income ratio
 First quartile (<0.83)0.666Ref.0.413Ref.0.204Ref.0.009Ref.0.073Ref.
 Second quartile (0.83–1.59)0.6190.730.4460.580.2190.640.0100.510.0760.86
 Third quartile (1.60–3.09)0.5680.400.3870.620.1780.170.0100.600.0790.73
 Fourth quartile (at least 3.1)0.4510.0320.4110.980.1990.870.0110.210.0890.42
 Missing0.5270.420.3260.200.1580.250.0080.650.0710.91
Serum cotinine
 <0.015 ng/mL0.469Ref.0.356Ref.0.171Ref.0.010Ref.0.081Ref.
 0.015–1.9 ng/mL0.5600.0220.4200.070.2080.0410.0100.490.0780.80
 At least 2.0 ng/mL0.6590.0130.3660.850.1660.810.0080.140.0790.91
Missing0.4230.540.4500.170.1940.500.0150.0280.0960.35
Physical activity
 Insufficient (<60 min/d)0.147Ref.0.167Ref.0.092Ref.0.005Ref.0.019Ref.
 Sufficient (≥60 min/d)0.540<0.001§0.389<0.001§0.197<0.001§0.009<0.001§0.073<0.001§
 Missing0.530<0.001§0.407<0.001§0.193<0.001§0.010<0.001§0.083<0.001§
Caloric intake compared with active child needs for age/sex
 Appropriate0.535Ref.0.390Ref.0.186Ref.0.010Ref.0.078Ref.
 Excessive0.5400.930.4270.360.2130.280.0110.250.0860.43
 Missing0.5220.920.6050.220.2510.500.0110.720.1150.26
Overweight status
 Not overweight (<85th percentile)0.476Ref.0.391Ref.0.191Ref.0.010Ref.0.077Ref.
 Overweight (≥85th percentile)0.6530.0020.4210.350.1970.760.0100.460.0870.24
Obese status
 Not obese (<95th percentile)0.505Ref.0.392Ref.0.192Ref.0.010Ref.0.077Ref.
 Obese (≥95th percentile)0.6950.0010.4510.300.1980.830.0110.530.0990.11
Pre-hypertension
 <90th percentile0.530Ref.0.399Ref.0.191Ref.0.010Ref.0.080Ref.
 ≥90th percentile0.6510.0380.4650.620.2340.330.0090.730.0870.82
  • DEHP indicates di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; DIDP, di-isodecyl phthalate; DINP, di-isononyl phthalate; HMW, low-molecular weight; LMW, low-molecular weight; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; and Ref., reference

  • * Derived using univariate regression of log molar concentration of urinary metabolites. Mean urinary phthalate metabolites represents retransformed mean from log base.

  • P<0.05.

  • P<0.01.

  • § P<0.001.