Table 4. Association Between Measures of Forearm Vasoreactivity and Arterial Stiffness

ModelVasoreactivity ParameterPulse PressureLog aPWV
UnadjustedAdjusted*UnadjustedAdjusted*
β±SEPβ±SEPΔR2β±SEPβ±SEPΔR2
*Models 1 to 8 are adjusted for other independent predictors of pulse pressure and aPWV (Table 3); Model 5 (for FVR) did not include mean arterial pressure as a covariate. Only summaries for brachial reactivity measures are shown; associations of other variables with pulse pressure and aPWV after adding vasoreactivity variables were not different from those in Table 3. For each model, ΔR2 represents change in R2 after adding the corresponding brachial vasoreactivity measure(s) to the respective multivariable model in Table 3. Abbreviations as in Table 2.
1Systolic flow velocity, m/s
    Baseline19.62±4.0<0.000113.88±3.670.00020.040.31±0.08<0.00010.28±0.06<0.00010.04
    Hyperemic6.94±2.170.001−0.82±2.010.68−0.03±0.040.46−0.15±0.04<0.0001
2Mean flow velocity, m/s
    Baseline−0.01±0.140.960.13±0.120.270.01−0.002±0.0030.420.002±0.0020.490.02
    Hyperemic−0.06±0.030.069−0.06±0.030.045−0.002±0.0010.0005−0.002±0.0010.002
3Systolic shear stress, dyne/cm2
    Baseline0.10±0.030.0020.12±0.040.0060.020.002±0.0010.0230.003±0.001<0.00010.04
    Hyperemic0.03±0.020.07−0.03±0.020.17−0.001±0.0010.29−0.002±0.000<0.0001
4Mean shear stress, dyne/cm2
    Baseline−0.06±0.170.740.17±0.150.250.01−0.003±0.0030.260.002±0.0030.540.02
    Hyperemic−0.06±0.030.072−0.06±0.030.036−0.002±0.0010.003−0.002±0.0010.003
5Log FVR, resistance units
    Baseline1.82±1.000.068−1.81±1.190.130.010.03±0.020.11−0.013±0.020.510.003
    Hyperemic5.97±1.47<0.00013.89±1.860.0360.12±0.03<0.00010.02±0.030.44
6Baseline baD, mm0.05±0.080.470.05±0.080.490.0010.002±0.0020.320.002±0.0010.0510.01
7Log (baFMD +10)−2.39±2.570.35−1.76±1.870.350.002−0.10±0.050.039−0.09±0.040.0110.01
8baNMD, %−0.36±0.090.0001−0.25±0.070.00020.04−0.01±0.0020.002−0.004±0.0010.0080.02